Human Development

Sudan_EcoPhoto Credit:Mohamed Nour Eldin

Sudan stood at the lower end of the latest Human Development Index (HDI) (March, 2014), ranking 166 out of 187 countries included world-wide. According to the report, average life expectancy stands at 62.1 years, compared to 59.4 for low-HDI countries. The expected and mean years of schooling is 7.3 and 3.1 respectively in comparison to the 9.0 and 4.2 average for lower end countries, while Gross National Income (GNI) per capita (2011 PPP $) is $ 3,428 in comparison to $ 2,904 for those in the same bracket. According to Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), 46.5 percent of the population of Sudan is found to fall below the poverty line, with 26.5 percent of the urban population and 57.6 percent of the rural population falling below the poverty line. The prevalence of under nourishment was thirty one and thirty four percent for the urban and rural populations, respectively.


The results of the Sudan Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey 2014 (MICS) indicates a decrease in the trend of infant mortality rate at national level as well as a decreased in the trend of under-five mortality rate. This indicates the positive outcomes of the efforts made by national and international organizations in this regard, however, much efforts are still required in this area. Under 5 mortality rate In East Darfur, more than 1 in 10 children die before their fifth birthday.  The MICS 2014  indicated the disparity between rural area (56/1,000 live births) and urban area (73/1,000 live births) and the Inequity in child mortality,  Poorest house holds (HH) have more than double mortality rate compared to richest HH.  Increase in child mortality in North Darfur from 69 per 1,000 live births in 2006 to 90.3 per 1,000 live births in 2014.


The Use of improved drinking water sources Increased from 58.7% in 2006 to 68% in 2014 and richest HH have more than twice as much as access to improved drinking water sources compared to poorest HH. There are large gaps among States: Northern State 93.8% while less than a third in Red Sea, White Nile and Gadarif State. Primary school net attendance ratio and completion rate increased form 68.4% in 2006 to 71.8% in 2010 and 76.4% in 2014. Even though Gender Parity Index in primary school improved from 0.94 in 2010 to 0.98 in 2014, there is more than a 10% gap in primary school completion rate between boys (84.8%) and girls (74.3%). Despite good progress within some indicators, Sudan will not meet the targets of the MDGs and there are some Key challenging issues are such as Decrease in measles immunization coverage and high prevalence of diarrhea, stagnant improvement in malnutrition, limited use of both improved water sources and improved sanitation, out of school children, prevalence of violence against children, orphans, female genital mutilation among women, and early marriage and child mortality.